Ethernet switch is a switch that transmits data based on Ethernet , Ethernet LAN with shared bus transmission media . The structure of Ethernet switch is that each port is directly connected to the host , And generally work in full duplex mode . The switch can connect many pairs of ports at the same time , So that each pair of hosts communicating with each other can act as exclusive communication media , Transmit data without impact . that , What are the working principles of Ethernet switches ? Next, let's take a closer look !
Working principle of Ethernet switch
Ethernet switch works in OSI The second layer of the network reference model （ Data link layer ）, Is based on MAC（Media Access
Control, Media access control ） Address identification , Network equipment that completes Ethernet data frame forwarding .
The socket used to link computers or other devices on the switch is called a port . The computer is connected to the port of the switch through the network cable with the help of the network card . network card , Each port of the switch and router has one MAC address , Solidified in the equipment by the equipment manufacturer EPROM in .MAC from IEEE Responsible for distribution , each MAC The address is unique in the world .MAC The address is of length 48 Bit binary , front 24 Bit is the trademark identifier of the equipment manufacturer , after 24 Bit serial number assigned by the manufacturer .
The switch accepts the data frame sent by the computer on the port , According to the purpose of the frame header MAC Address lookup MAC The address table then forwards the data frame from the corresponding port , So as to realize data exchange .
The working process of the switch can be summarized as “ study , memory , receive , Look up table , forward ” And so on ： adopt “ study ” You can know the number of devices connected to each port MAC address ; take MAC Correspondence between address and port number “ memory ” In memory , production MAC Address table ; From one port “ receive ” After data frame , stay MAC In the address table “ lookup ” And the purpose in the frame header MAC Port number corresponding to the address , then , Transfer the data frame from the checked port “ forward ” get out .
Switch partition conflict domain , Each port is independent into a conflict domain . If a large amount of data is sent on each port , Then the port will first store the received data waiting to be sent into the register , Send again when it's your turn to send .
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