<> one ： The import of opium and its impact
Early British trade was exclusively operated by the East India Company , This is an association of businessmen .
The company thinks , Long term trade with China is very bad , And due to the shortage of hard currency , British businessmen need to ship Eagle Silver from Mexico or South America every time , Silver can do business with China. It's too much trouble , Britain hopes to find alternatives to break this balance .
So the British imported opium into China , Some Chinese have tasted the sweetness , A whole set of opium culture developed gradually , And gave opium a nice name, such as Hibiscus cream , Ah Furong or something , A complete set of opium smoking devices has also been developed , ceremony , It seems that smoking opium is particularly cultural .
After having culture and taste , Everyone came to suck . It's very expensive , It also hurts your body （ People didn't know ）. It was British money that flowed to us , Now it's our money flowing to the British , And more and more are imported , Soon, the silver spent on imported opium offset the profits of exported tea , And China's monetary system is
silver standard , All goods transactions , Pay taxes , Including the salaries of officials, they are settled in silver , Silver has decreased , The monetary system is in trouble . Silver is expensive , The copper coins depreciated , The result is soaring prices .
in addition , The common characteristic of opium addicts is that they are lazy , Weak constitution , At that time, most officials and soldiers were smoking opium , These people are yellow and skinny. They can't fight
, Someone realized the seriousness of the problem , Now the imperial court panicked , This is the main reason for the ban .
<> two ： Smoking ban
Although opium is a smuggling trade , And ordered a ban on smuggling , But this kind of smuggling has actually been obtained in Guangdong , The acquiescence of the government in Fujian , When the flying shear ship of Bian Yun opium came, the Chinese Navy didn't care , I didn't come out until I left , The drive is not fast or slow, like an escort . This is true every time smuggling , It can be seen that smuggling is condoned by the government , This is because the benefits have been sent , All levels of inspection have been paid off , On the way, it's also pretentious .
At that time, people became officers and soldiers to make money , under these circumstances , Opium cannot be banned .
The court also hoped to persuade the officials, gentry and people not to take opium , But that's even less likely .
The Qing government had a big problem , Because there is no business tax , So the surplus of the Treasury is not much , The same is true in good times . In the face of financial crisis , The Qing government decided to ban the opium trade .
At that time, there were two major factions: the prohibition faction and the prohibition faction , The proscribes want to grow opium themselves , But this method is difficult to achieve immediate results . To grow opium, you must first learn to grow opium poppy , What kind of climate , What kind of land , When , When will it be collected , It's all exquisite . Emperor Daoguang was always stingy , Plus, I'm in a hurry , Therefore, they tend to strictly prohibit the practice of factionalism .
<> three ： UK cancels East India Company
1832 year , Britain abolished the franchise of the East India Company , Free trade was thoroughly implemented . This means that the degree of protection of the country's foreign trade has increased . When such a system existed in the past , The franchise is privately armed , No need for state protection , Businessmen can form their own business groups and use their own fleets to provide security . After abolishing this system , The responsibility of the state is great , The state must directly protect foreign trade . But the Chinese don't know that yet . Britain sent the government's business supervision to China , But China does not admit it , I don't think there should be any government supervision , Officials of other governments can only pay tribute . Therefore, the two sides cannot communicate , The British cannot have a direct dialogue with China's powerful mission .
<> four ： Lin Zexu ： The first person to open his eyes and see the world
Lin Zexu is a cadre who is strictly forbidden to be sent , Daoguang sent Lin Zexu to Guangdong to ban smoking at this time .
Although his position is not high , But very responsible , Even though most officials in the DPRK and China are anti ban groups , Even if Han bureaucrats are not valued . He thinks it must be done , In his words ：“ To benefit the country's life and death , Do you avoid it because of misfortunes and blessings ”.
He is a person who pays more attention to practical learning . After he arrived in Guangzhou, he found that foreigners were not the same as what he thought , They found that their legs were not straight , So I began to wonder whether the second myth is true . therefore , He made a special trip to Macao , Translate all kinds of newsprint , Then I made it up 《 Four continents 》, This book should be China's first introduction to the situation of western countries , At this time, Lin Zexu began to gradually open his eyes to see the world , Realize that foreigners are not what he thinks , their
Foreign guns are very powerful , Society is not a primitive society . Lin Zexu began to understand , But it's just a little clear .
unfortunately , At this time, Daoguang didn't particularly understand , He wants to do it once and for all , Especially when the initial ban on smoking was effective . When smoking was banned on June 3, Daoguang wanted to close the trading port , Fortunately, Lin Zexu didn't do it . But in fact, the rift between China and Britain has widened because of the ban on smoking . Moreover, there are problems between Lin Zexu and Daoguang .
<> five ： The first Opium War
Due to the cancellation of franchise companies in Britain , At that time, the British business supervisor asked the British smugglers to hand over the opium , And guarantee that the losses will be borne by the government , This has become a problem between the Chinese and British governments .（ One of the later provisions is to compensate the British government for the losses brought by this opium .） It can be seen that the ban on smoking has planted the roots of this war , At that time, the British business supervisor had decided to print one , And they have a lot of power .