feudal society

Chinese name
feudal society
Foreign name
feudal society

《 A general study of imperial documents · Examination of Fengjian 》 I made a conclusion : The title of Lord liejue , Divide land and build . Li Si and Wang Wan in Qin Dynasty —— The debate on which is better or worse in feudalism , And Liu Zongyuan's in Tang Dynasty 《 Feudalism 》, On the advantages and disadvantages of Wang Fuzhi's feudalism in the Ming and Qing Dynasties , All of them explain this view .

Feudalism had a complicated process in Western Europe , Its meaning refers to the monarch and minister , Serfdom , Manor system , The feudal lords monopolized the land , Land sales are not allowed , The contractual relationship between the Lord and the vassal coexisted with personal attachment . Both European and American historians summarized the feudalism and feudalism as the premise of feudal production relations , declare , The control of land and subjects by feudal lords is the foundation of feudal system , He also regarded personal attachment as a feature of feudalism .

Feudal society refers to the social state in which the feudal system is carried out . So what is feudalism ?

Feudalism (Feudalism), The political system in the Shang and Zhou dynasties of China and the middle ages of Western Europe , It was enfeoffment by the aristocratic ruling class , Possession of land and farmers ( Or serfs ) Social system based on wealth .

Feudalism is a political system , From the Communist Party or the central dynasty to the clan members , Royal family and meritorious officials enfeoffment of territory . Its basic forms are feudal hierarchy and manor system . a farmer ( Or serfs ) The vast majority of the land that the landowner cultivated was handed over to the feudal lord . The superstructure is mainly a feudal country characterized by hierarchy . The dominant ideology is to maintain the feudal system and feudal hierarchy , Promoting traditional morality as the main content . Under the feudal system , The basic social stratum is the feudal lords and peasants ( Or serfs ) stratum .
China's feudal system was formally formed in BC 11 century , China's autocratic centralization system began in BC 221 year , Ending in A.D 1912 year . That is, since the establishment of the Qin Dynasty , To the end of the Qing Dynasty .

Marxist historians “ feudal society ” It refers to the social form in which landlords or landlords occupy land and exploit farmers or serfs , Western Scholars “ feudal society ” To give to members of the royal family by a communist or central dynasty , Royal family and meritorious officials enfeoffment of territory , It's a kind of state management “ system ” Instead of a “ Sociology ”, It belongs to the category of political system .

The society in which the landlord class became the ruling class was a feudal society , The contradiction between the landlord class and the peasant class was the main contradiction in feudal society . The natural economy formed in feudal society was based on land , Combination of agriculture and handicraft industry , Take family as production unit , It is self sealing , Independence , Economic structure organization focusing on meeting their own needs .

Under the feudal system , The basic social stratum is the feudal lords and peasants ( Or serfs ) The contradiction of , And the social hierarchy is very strict , Feudal lords are feudal lords for generations , Serfs are serfs for generations , Under the influence of patriarchal system, this fragile social relationship has been maintained , Compared with the centralization era, the social strata can be converted to each other, which is essentially different .
In this pyramid of strict hierarchy, farmers ( Or serfs ) Living in poverty , No political rights , The contradiction between them and the feudal lords was very sharp .

With the development of society , The use of iron increased social productivity , The old mine system is no longer satisfied with the needs of social development . Private fields began to appear , The minefield system began to collapse , The old social system began to disintegrate , The decline of Zhou royal family , Leading to the weakening of central control , The centrifugal force of Zhou Dynasty's feudal officials began to produce . They don't look at Zhou royal family any more . With the emancipation of the mind , The consciousness of the common people began to wake up , The slave's enthusiasm for production declined , And there's been riots .( Such as the slave uprising led by bandit Zhi ) The awakening literati and officialdom began to step onto the stage of history , In the late Zhou Dynasty, a hundred schools of thought began to contend , And the princes of Zhou Dynasty wanted to win in the dispute , They began to explore their own changes one after another ( Including Zhao Wuling King's Hu Fu riding and shooting , Shang Yang's reform in the state of Qin , And the reform of Chu and Wuqi also belonged to the category of social change promoted by the vassal states ) The contention of a hundred schools of thought has become a driving force for social change . Among them, Legalists' thoughts are at the forefront of the stage of social change .

Under the baptism of the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period , With the help of Legalists, the state of Qin first completed the social transformation before the other six countries , And successfully unified China , Established emperor system . Qin Shihuang became the first emperor in China's centralized society , from then on , Zhou Dynasty maintained 800 The end of feudal society in , Instead, there is a new centralism , And put the new county system into practice , China has entered the age of emperors since the Qin Dynasty .

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