Carl · Marx , Full name Carl · Heinrich · Marx ( German :Karl Heinrich
Marx,1818 year 5 month 5 day -1883 year 3 month 14 day ), One of the founders of Marxism , Organizers and leaders of first international , One of the founders of Marxist political parties , Revolutionary tutors of the proletariat and working people all over the world , The spiritual leader of the proletariat , The founder of the international communist movement .

Marx is a German thinker , Political scientist , philosopher , economist , Revolutionary theorist , Historians and sociologists . The main works are 《 Capital 》《 Communist Manifesto 》 etc . The well-known philosophical thought created by Marx is historical materialism , His greatest wish is the comprehensive and free development of the individual .

Marx founded economic theory 《 Capital 》, Marx established the principle of his exposition “ Critique of political economy ”. Marx believed that , This is “ principles of political economy ” Something about . Marx believed that the destruction of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat were equally inevitable . Marxist theory founded by him and Engels , It is regarded as the theoretical weapon and action guide to guide the working people all over the world to fight for the realization of socialist and communist ideals .

1830 year 10 month , Marx enters Trier middle school . After graduation from high school , University of Bonn ,18 He transferred to Berlin University to study law , But most of his learning focus is on philosophy and history .1840 year , Frederick, the new king of Prussia · William IV ascends the throne , Persecution of Liberal Democrats , All publications are required to pass strict scrutiny , Universities lose academic freedom , Professor of Berlin University appointed by the new king F.W.von
Schelling Marx's doctoral dissertation will be reviewed , However, the position that philosophy is higher than theology in Marx's doctoral dissertation cannot be accepted by anti Hegel professors , So Marx sent his doctoral thesis to Saxon instead - Weimar - Jena University in the Duchy of Eisenach (Jena) Examination of doctoral qualification .1841 Marx's thesis in 《 The difference between Democritus' natural philosophy and Epicurus' natural philosophy 》 Apply for a degree , It has been unanimously approved by the Committee , Without further reply, he was awarded a Ph.D. from Jena University . After graduation 《 Rhine 》 Chief editor , In the history of the development of Marx's thought “ Forest theft ”.

Marxism

Marxism , English is Marxism, It is the abbreviation of Marxist theoretical system , It's about the complete liberation of the proletariat and all mankind in the world . It consists of Marxist philosophy , Marxist political economy and scientific socialism consist of three parts , It's Marx , Engels is critically inheriting and absorbing human's natural science , Thinking science , On the basis of outstanding achievements in Social Science 19 century 40 Founded in the s , And constantly enriched in practice , Developing and perfecting the scientific system of proletarian thought .

The theoretical system of Marxism covers Marx himself about the future social form —— All viewpoints and theories of scientific socialism .
The theoretical system of Marxism consists of two parts , They are modern materialism and modern scientific socialism .
The theory of scientific socialism in the theoretical system of Marxism , It contains two parts , Scientific socialist revolutionary theory ( That is, the theory of political power ), Principles of scientific socialist political economy .

The dictatorship of the proletariat is the political rule of the proletariat , The method of overthrowing the regime is violence ,—— This basic thought was put forward by Marx and Engels .
Lenin's new contribution in this respect lies in :
( One ) He used the experience of the Paris Commune and the Russian Revolution , It is found that the Soviet regime is the best state form of proletarian dictatorship ;

( Two ) He focused on the issue of proletarian allies , The formula of the dictatorship of the proletariat is expounded , It is stipulated that the dictatorship of the proletariat is the leader of the proletariat and the masses who are being exploited by the non proletariat ( Farmers and so on ) The special form of class Alliance ;

( Three ) He highlighted this fact in particular : Proletarian dictatorship is the highest type of democracy in class society , It's for the majority ( The exploited ) Interest in the form of proletarian democracy , It represents the minority ( Exploiter ) Capitalist democracy of interest is the opposite .

Historical changes

1848 year 2 month ,《 Communist Manifesto 》 The publication of Marxism marks the birth of Marxism .

1867 year , Marx published it 《 Capital 》 Volume I ,《 Capital 》 It is the mother economic theory of scientific socialist political economy , It's a neutral economic theory . Direct reading 《 Capital 》, Unable to understand the content of the principles of scientific socialist political economy , The social attribute of neutral economic theory needs to be adapted , Only then can we learn and interpret the principles of scientific socialist political economy .
1875 year , Marx finished 《 Some opinions on the program of the German workers' Party 》 writing , This marks that Marx has completed all the design and writing of the principles of scientific socialist political economy .

classic

the german ideology (1845 year -1846 Co authored with Engels )
theses on feuerbach (1845 year )
The poverty of Philosophy (1847 year )
Employed labor and capital ((1847 year )
Speech on free trade (1848 year )
Communist Manifesto (1848 year )
Louis · Bonaparte's foggy 18th (1852 year )
Critique of political economy (1857 year )
Critique of political economy (1859 year )
Capital (1867 year )
French Civil War (1871 year )
Critique of Gotha Program (1875 year )
On anti durin (1878 year )
family , Private ownership and the origin of the state (1884 year )

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