Liu Zhiji of Tang Dynasty 《 Stone · Yili 》：
“ Strange , The Jin family has the world ! From Luoyang , South crossing , Jiangzuo qiaolizhou County , No mulberry seed .”
South crossing , Also known as the south of the dress . Liu Zhiji, historian of Tang Dynasty 《 Stone 》“ Yili ” piece . This article only refers to the chaos in the late Western Jin Dynasty , The gentry in the Central Plains fled to the South with each other , Central Plains Civilization or Central Plains regime moving southward . After the southern crossing of clothing, it gradually evolved into a familiar code , On behalf of the gentry ﹑ Literati and other officials avoided the South and took root .
In Chinese history, there were three times of large-scale population migration to the South due to unrest , namely ：
for the first time ： Sima Rui, emperor of the Yuan Dynasty of Jin Dynasty, crossed the river at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty , Establish the capital Jiankang （ Today's Nanjing ） The establishment of the Eastern Jin Dynasty .
Tang Zhanhui 《 Yongjia chaos , South crossing , Liulounan spring , Recite the past 》：
Recalling the past yongjiaji , The year of Bandang in the Central Plains . The clothes are covered with charcoal , The smell of the public .
The country is in great danger , The patriarchal clan moved hard . Tears from Nanlai , Thirsty Ji makes every thought spring .
The second time : Tang Dynasty “ An Shi rebellion ” after , Scholars and commoners in the Central Plains moved southward to avoid chaos ; Setting the capital Jiangning Prefecture ( Nanjing ), The establishment of the Southern Tang Dynasty .
third time : Late Northern Song Dynasty , Song Gaozong crossing the river , Yilin'an （ Hangzhou today ） As the capital of the industry , The establishment of the Southern Song Dynasty .
Ad 290 year （ The first year of Taixi, Emperor Wu of Jin Dynasty ）, The death of Sima Yan, Emperor Wu of Jin Dynasty , Sima Zhong, the second son, ascended the throne , It's for emperor Hui of Jin Dynasty .
Huidi's wife, empress Jia, wants to take over power , And the foreign relatives of the assistant government , General Yang Jun （ Sima Yan's father-in-law , Sima Zhong's grandfather ） There is a contradiction .
291 Nian Jiahou killed Yang Jun , A series of political massacres and wars began to take place within the ruling class , There were eight royal families successively enfeoffed as kings , In order to fight for the central government , There was a massive scuffle , It took 16 years , It was called the Western Jin Dynasty in history “ The rebellion of the eight kings ”.
306 year （ The first year of Guangxi reign ）, Sima Zhong died of illness , Sima Chi, the 25th son of Sima Yan, ascended the throne , For emperor Huaidi of Jin Dynasty .
His tenure , All political affairs were presided over by Sima Yue, king of the East China Sea .
here , The aftermath of the eight kings' rebellion , All kinds of strong and powerful people have started again .
The biggest threat is Liu Yuan and Liu Cong, the southern Huns .
After the continuous attack of the Han Dynasty , To the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period , The southern Huns who were settled in present Shanxi Province , Controlled by Cao Cao , It is divided into five parts , The former Khanate nobles were the leaders of the five tribes , They were also monitored by Han officials .
Liu Yuan is the grandson of yufuluodanyu, the southern Hun , The son of Liu Bao , Born of the Huyan family .
After yufrodan died , His younger brother huchu spring is sweat position , Cao Cao is in control , Divide the soldiers of huchuquan into five parts , Liu Bao was appointed commander in chief , The rest of the generals were also named Liu .
Liu Yuan was fond of learning since childhood , Pay homage to the party members （ People from Changzhi, Shanxi Province ） Cui you as a teacher , study 《 Mao poetry 》,《 Jing's Yi 》 and 《 Ma Shangshu 》 Etc , Especially 《 Biography of Zuo clan in the spring and Autumn Period 》,《 The art of war of Sun Wu 》 These two books , It can be read roughly , and 《 Redords of the Grand History of China 》,《 The History of the Han Dynasty 》 And the works of other scholars are also familiar with . He has long arms and is good at archery , Physical strength is more than ordinary people , attitude , It's big , He used to accept Sima Zhao , Sima Yan was full of praise when he was summoned .
Taking advantage of the eight kings' rebellion , Liu Yuan, who had autonomy and military strength, was courted by people of all walks of life , As a result, his official rank also increased , On the other hand, the Central Plains court granted the political status to gather power within the Huns .
304 year （ The first year of Yongxing ）, Liu Yuan started his army in the headquarters , He came out of the Han Dynasty with the surname of Liu , Calling himself the king of the Han Dynasty , Its capital is located in Zuo Guocheng, its base camp （ Lvliang City, Shanxi Province ）, Four years later, he called himself Emperor , The capital was moved to Pingyang, the southernmost stronghold of the Huns in the Central Plains （ Linfen City, Shanxi Province ）, The country name is Han .
310 year （ Yongjia fourth year of emperor Huaidi of Jin Dynasty ）, Liu Yuan died of illness , The fourth son Liu Cong killed the crown prince Liu He and ascended the throne , It's for emperor Zhaowu .
The Huns rose rapidly , And the regime was established , It shocked the court of the Western Jin Dynasty , So they sent troops to suppress it .
However, after the rebellion of the eight kings, the army of Jin Dynasty was lax , Liu Cong is not a well-trained opponent at all .
311 April , Liu Cong sent General shile to annihilate more than 100000 Jin troops in Ningping City, kuxian county （ Now Luyi County, Henan Province ）, Wang Yan and others were captured and killed ; In the same year, Liu Cong sent General huyanyan to attack Luoyang .
June , Huyanyan arrives in Luoyang , Liu Yao （ The son of Liu Yuan's family , Later usurped the power of Han Dynasty , Change the name of the country from Han to Zhao , Moving capital to Chang'an , Known as Qianzhao in history ） Wait for the troops to join us , Attack Luoyang , Indulge in burning, killing and looting , Capture emperor Huaidi of Jin , Killing Sima Quan, Prince of Jin Dynasty , royal clan , More than 30000 officials, soldiers and civilians , And digging tombs and burning palaces , Historical name “ Yongjia rebellion ”.
After the Yongjia rebellion , The northern Han gentry couldn't be ruled by other nationalities , In order to avoid the disaster of war, they moved south , So that the center of the Han civilization centered on the Yellow River Basin moved to the south , And it is the first time in history that the economic center of the Central Plains has moved southward .
After the fall of Luoyang, the capital of Jin Dynasty , Jin royal family , The nobility scattered , Most of them fled to the south of the Yangtze River , Sima Ye fled to Chang'an with a group of people .313 year , After the death of Sima Chi, Emperor Huai of Jin Dynasty , He was hailed as emperor , It was for the emperor of Jin .
But the South Huns did not stop hunting .
316 year （ The fourth year of Jianxing of Jin Dynasty ）, At that time, Liu Yao led the army to besiege Chang'an , In the city, the hunger changed and the food was changed , Simaye's coming out , The fall of the Western Jin Dynasty in 52 years .
Sima Ye was sent to Pingyang, the capital of Han Dynasty , Being humiliated by Liu Cong every day , Forced to pull the stirrups for it , Wine washing , All the officials of Jin Dynasty were wailing and wailing .
Fantasy for Jue Jin people , Liu Cong ordered simaye to be beheaded .
317 year , Under the support of the gentry and common people who moved to the south of the Central Plains , Guarding Jiankang （ Nanjing, Jiangsu Province ） The royal family of the Western Jin Dynasty , Sima Rui, the great grandson of Sima Yi, became king , In March of the following year, he was called emperor , It was for the emperor yuan of the Eastern Jin Dynasty . Sima Dewen Yu, Emperor Gong of the Eastern Jin Dynasty 420 Nian Chan is located in Liu Song Dynasty , Song Dynasty in the South , Qi , beam , Chen and Northern Wei Dynasty , Eastern Wei Dynasty , Western Wei Dynasty , Northern Qi Dynasty , The northern and Southern Dynasties of the Northern Zhou Dynasty , until 581 It was unified by the Sui Dynasty established by Yang Jian .
From the eight kings' rebellion to the Yongjia rebellion , The people of the Central Plains, especially the Yellow River Basin, have suffered from decades of war , The pain cannot be described in words .
know the actual cause , Objectively, it was the northern Hu people who moved to the south , Since Emperor Xuan of the Western Han Dynasty formed a strategic advantage over Xiongnu , In addition, the Eastern Han Dynasty continued to attack Xiongnu , As a result, a large number of them moved to the Central Plains , Mixed with Han people .
Although the Xiongnu people in the production and life style has a deep Chinese characteristics , Such as following the surname Han , A large number of people began to engage in farming, etc , But because of its basic form of political organization and self-government, the tribe is the basic form , It has been maintaining a relatively strong military force .
therefore , When the Central Plains regime was relatively united and strong , The Huns had to obey their orders , For example, despite the war in the Three Kingdoms at the end of the Han Dynasty , But because Cao Cao had the basic unification north and the absolute authority , The military is also very strong , So the Huns were at their mercy .
The rise of the Hu people was mainly due to the collapse of the rule of the Western Jin Dynasty and civil strife , All parties to the civil strife for their own private interests , Competing for the Huns , Xianbei and other Hu people , Even lead the wolf into the house , Borrow from them . As in the rebellion of the eight kings , Wang Jun （ People from Taiyuan, Shanxi Province , General of Western Jin Dynasty , He took part in the war against Wu in Jin Dynasty ）, Sima Teng, the king of Xincai, liked to use Xianbei people , Sima Ying, the king of Chengdu, liked to use the Huns . In the so-called “ With Hu ” Strategy , We only know how to use it without any enlightenment and restriction , So that the Hu people know the strength of the Western Jin Dynasty , As soon as the time comes , And they started to make trouble .
The great migration of Han people after the Yongjia rebellion , It mainly flows in three directions , The northeast , Northwest and South , Streamline the Northeast , Most of them were attached to the Murong regime of Xianbei people ; Those flowing to the Northwest , It is attached to Liangzhou, the Han people's Hexi corridor （ Today, Wuwei City, Gansu Province ） The small Zhang track regime in the region , Most of them moved to the south of the Yangtze River .
Among these displaced Han people , There is no lack of elite heroes , The Murong clan of Xianbei in Northeast China , It is not only for them to set up the counties where the Han people are used to , It is also used in a united manner , Therefore, Zhuyan was established in the Sixteen Kingdoms of Wuhu for its domination in the Central Plains （ It refers to Qianyan in sixteen middle schools , Houyan , Nanyan and others ruled the small court ） The regime laid a solid foundation , One of the most famous families in the Central Plains is Hedong （ Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province ） Passches , Guangping （ Guangping County, Hebei Province ） You's family , Daijun （ Dai County, Shanxi Province ） Lu's family , Lanling （ Today, Linyi City, Shandong Province ） Miao and so on .
The Central Plains people who fled to Liangzhou , On the economic and social development of Han and Hu people in Hexi area , Political development has made great contributions , The gap between them and the Central Plains has been greatly reduced , And set up “ Five cool ”（ That is, Qianliang in the 16th middle school , Aftercooling , North cool , Nanliang , Five small independent imperial courts in Xiliang ） regime .
《 Jin Shu 》 cloud ：“ Luojing capsized , On the 16th and 7th of Zhongzhou's gentry avoiding chaos in Jiangzuo ”. so , Most of the Han immigrants came to the south of the Yangtze River , Historical name “ South crossing ” or “ Clothes moved south ”.
so-called “ Clothing ”, It refers to e Guan Bo Dai, a scholar of the Wei and Jin Dynasties , graceful bearing , This word is relative to ordinary people's shaggy short coat .
We know , From the Han Dynasty to cultivate the scholar bureaucrats , By the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it had become a climate , There is a sharp contrast in society , The great families in Central Plains who moved southward with the Jin Dynasty , Officials, officials, gentry , King of Israel （ Langya Wang and Taiyuan Wang ）, thank （ Chenjun ）, Yuan （ Runan ）, Xiao （ Lanling ） The largest .
The original Lu family in the North （ Hejian ）, cui （ Qinghe County and Boling County ） Because the industry is too large to move to the south , As a result, officials were rarely seen in the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the four Southern Dynasties .
Similarly , Passches （ Hedong County ） Mainly stay in the local area , Later, he cooperated with the Xianbei regimes , In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Xianbei regime became a prominent official family , In the Tang Dynasty alone, there were dozens of Pei's prime ministers , There are countless other senior officials .
The maintenance of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the southern four dynasties , It mainly depends on the big family forces of southward migration , And the numerous ordinary northern refugees attached to them , Song Dynasty , Qi , The founders of the three dynasties were all descendants of the northern refugees .
The clothing of the Han Scholars in the Yellow River Basin , Yangtze River natural moat and natural treasures relying on Jiangnan , In the national crisis , To a great extent, it preserved the Han civilization , So that it can continue to this day .