Compile once , Run around

java The slogan that has been publicized is : Compile once , Run around . So how does it work ? Let's look at the picture below :
graph TD java Original procedure --javac compile -->java Bytecode java Bytecode -->jvm virtual machine
jvm virtual machine --java explain -->windows Machine code jvm virtual machine --java explain -->linux Machine code windows Machine code -->windows implement
linux Machine code -->linux implement
java After a compilation of the program , take java The code is compiled into bytecode, that is class file , And then rely on different java virtual machine
Explain , Finally, it is converted to machine code of different platforms , Finally implemented . So we can deduce , If you want to mac Running on the system , Do you just need to install mac java virtual machine
Just do it . So, after understanding the basic principle , Let's take a look , How a program is executed .
public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.print("Hello world"); } }
This program runs from compile to run , The process is as follows :
graph TD java source code --class file -->java Bytecode java Bytecode -- load jvm.cfg file --> load configuration
load configuration -- according to jvm.cfg Configuration of --> load jvm.dll file load jvm.dll file --> initialization jvm initialization jvm--> obtain JNI Interface
obtain JNI Interface --JNI For local methods, it can directly interact with the operating system --> operation Class file operation Class file --> find main Document execution
jvm Basic structure

Probably through the above description , Everyone is right JVM We have a rough understanding of the operation process , that JVM How to execute one inside class What about the documents ?
graph TD Class file --> Classloader Classloader --> Memory space Memory space -- Runtime Constant Pool --> Method area Method area --> garbage collection GC
Memory space -- Object store -->java heap java heap --> garbage collection GC Memory space -- Local variable table _ Stack frame _ Operands -->java Stack
java Stack -- Thread end auto release --> Thread private Memory space -- Local method library _C language --> Native Method Stack Native Method Stack --> Thread private Memory space --JNI Direct operation --> Out of heap memory
jvm Introduction to memory classification

JVM Memory space contains : Method area ,java heap ,java Stack , Native Method Stack .

Method area is the area shared by each thread , Storage information , constant , Static variable .

java Heap is also thread sharing
Area of , The instance of our class is in this area , You can imagine that your system will produce many instances , therefore java The heap also has the largest space . If java Insufficient heap space , The program will throw OutOfMemoryError abnormal .

java Stack is the private area of each thread , It has the same life cycle as a thread , One thread corresponds to one java Stack , Every time a method is executed, an element is pushed into the stack , This element is called “ Stack frame ”, Stack frame
Local variables in the method are included in , Operation stack for storing intermediate status values , If java Insufficient stack space , The program will throw StackOverflowError abnormal .

Each frame represents a method ,Java Method can be returned in two ways ,return And throw exceptions , Both methods will cause the corresponding frames of the method to stack out and free memory .

Local method stack roles and java Stack similar , It's just that it's meant to execute local methods , Method call local method interface stored in local method stack , Final call to local method library , Implementation and operating system , Purpose of hardware interaction .


PC register ( Program counter ), At this point, our class has been loaded , Instance object , method , Static variables go where they are , So here comes the question... , How to execute the program , Which method should be executed first , Which method is executed after , The order in which these instructions are executed is PC Register in tube , Its function is to control the execution sequence of program instructions .

The execution engine is based on PC Instruction order of register adjustment , Execute program instructions in sequence .

* Static variable + constant + Class information + Runtime constant pool exists in method area , Instance variable in heap memory .
* Basic types of variables and object reference variables are divided in the function stack memory

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