Linux There are many versions , For example, common in the world
Ubuntu,RedHat,Fedora,Centos Wait , Which version should we choose ? Today, I will take you to analyze and compare the versions , Help people make better choices .
（ One ）Linux What is it? ?
First of all, let's get to know Linux What is it? . It's a set of classes UNIX Operating system of , Originally 1991 The Finns Linus Torvald
It was written out of personal interest when I was a sophomore at the University of Helsinki （ Can't help admiring the great God ）. On the left of the picture below is what he looked like when he was young （ When I was young, I was also a piece of fresh meat ）; On the right is what he looks like ( He has become a middle-aged uncle ), And
Linus It's not just a technology God , It's also a famous muzzle gun , For example, the following technologies and applications have been sprayed by him .
” real Emacs It's the devil's tool .”
” Whole GNOME-3 's user experience is almost entirely a failure ,’ Under default configuration , We don't even give you the most basic tools to solve problems , But you can solve it through unofficial expansion ‘.”
” I don't care Java. What terrible language .“
”C ++ It's a terrible language .”
”GCC It's bullshit .“
”XML It's bullshit . analysis XML It's a nuisance to humans , It's a disaster even for computers . There's no reason for this terrible rubbish to exist .”
”Solaris/x86 It's a joke “
（ Two ）Linux What is the distribution of ?
in fact Linus stay 1991 Written in Linux
Kernel of , Is the core of an operating system , Including device drive , file system , Process management, etc . Of course, if an operating system has only a kernel , There is no way for users to use it , therefore Linux The release of will
Linux A package of kernel and application software , These applications can include GNU Libraries and tools , command line Shell tool , Graphical interface XWindow
System and corresponding desktop environment and thousands of application software .
（ Three ） common Linux Version comparison
First Linux The distribution version of can be divided into several big families , such as Red Hat,Debian,SlackWare Wait ; And then there are different releases in every big family .
1） Debian family
Debian First by Ian
Murdock to 1993 Created in , It's a community class Linux A model of , It's also the most followed GNU canonical Linux system .Debian It is widely used in the field of server and desktop computer , The most distinctive feature is apt-get
/ dpkg Package management mode .
Ubuntu Is based on Debian Developed from , friendly interface , Easy to use , And the hardware support is very comprehensive , More suitable for desktop system .Ubuntu
There are many different versions of it , For example, based on KDE Of Kubuntu, Based on ultra lightweight LXDE Of Lubuntu, Chinese customized version Ubuntu Kylin etc .
Linux Mint from Linux Mint Team Team on 2006 Issued in , Be based on Ubuntu Derivation , It's a desktop system that focuses on individual users , More beautiful interface .
2） Red Hat family
Red Hat Red hat was founded in 1993 year , Is the most famous in the world Linux One of the manufacturers .Red Hat The company's products mainly include ：
RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux), It's a commercial version , Source code disclosure , Technical support needs to be paid , Provide original service .
Fedora Is based on Red Hat Linux Community Edition of , from Fedora
Project Community development , Red hat sponsorship .Fedora Will adopt the latest technology , Try a lot of new features , New features , It will be applied to RHEL In version , It can be understood as yes
RHEL Personal desktop version and pre test version of .
CentOS Full name Community Enterprise Operating System（ Community enterprise operating system ）, It can be understood as yes RHEL
Community clone of . Completely free , And open source . Its unique yum Command support system online upgrade , Can be updated instantly .CentOS Good stability , Widely used in China .
3） SlackWare family
SLES SUSE Linux Enterprise Server , Enterprise Edition , Be based on SlackWare Linux Developed from , From Germany SuSE Linux
AG Company and 1994 Issued in .
OpenSuse yes SLES Community version of .2004 year SuSE Linux AG cover Novell After the acquisition of the company , Established OpenSUSE
Community , So we launched OpenSuse Edition , More suitable for desktop system . Its sum SLES It's kind of like Fedora and RHEL Relationship of .
4） Other Linux Edition
Linux There are many other versions , such as Gentoo Linux,
Its logo is the pursuit of extreme performance , Fastest running speed in the same hardware environment . However, it needs to use the source package to compile and install the operating system , Very complex , But it doesn't prevent a large number of users and developers from embracing it .
Let me summarize with a table Linux The relationship and characteristics of different families and distribution versions ：
（ Four ）Linux Suggestions for version selection
If I read the introduction above, I still don't know how to choose a friend , Please refer to the following suggestions ：
1） If you need a stable server , have access to CentOS （ Free Admission , And it is widely used in China ）, Or use RHEL（ Payment required , But we can get good support from big factories , Ensure commercial application ）.
2） If you want to replace it with a personal desktop system Windows Words , You can try it Ubuntu Different versions of , Easy to install , Comprehensive hardware support , And friendly interface .
3） If you want to learn in depth Linux, More flexible to customize your system , Pursue ultimate performance , Let's experience it Gentoo What a pleasure .
These are just personal suggestions , In fact, no matter which version , The kernel is the same , The so-called analogy bypass , infer other things from one fact , As long as one kind of learning is clear , The use of other versions is no longer difficult .