If you're going to interview one Linux Position of system operation and maintenance engineer , The following ten most common questions must be answered , Or your interview could be dangerous . These are basic questions , You need to understand , You can't just memorize .


1, How to view the version of the system kernel


There are two ways :

1) uname -a

uname This command is used to print system information , -a
All information of the system can be printed , Including kernel version , For example, my version number is 3.10.0-957.21.3.el7.X86_64.


2) cat /proc/version


Let's add the meaning of each number and letter :

3 Indicates the major version number , Change only when there is structural change ( The latest is 5)

10 Indicates minor version number , New features will change , General base represents beta , Even number for stable version .2020 year 3 month 30 day ,Linus Torvalds Released the latest Linux
The kernel version is 5.6

0 Indicates the number of revisions or patches to the minor version

957 Represents the number of compilations , Each compilation can optimize or modify a few programs

el7 Special information used to represent the version , There is greater randomness ;el On behalf of enterprise ,pp For beta ,fc representative Fedora core,rc Representative candidate

X86_64 express 64 position


 2, How to view the current IP address


There are two ways :

1)ifconfig -a

ifconfig Is the command used to configure the network interface ,-a Can display all current interfaces .


2)ip addr show



3, How to see how much space is left on the disk


It can be used here df -ah Command to view ,df Is a command used to view the disk space usage of the file system ,-a Show all file systems ,-h Display in a human readable way .

You can see my disk on it /dev/vda1 Yes 40 G, It's already used 1.7 G, also 36 G Free space for .



4, How to manage services in the system


You may be asked here , How to check whether a service is running , How to start , stop it , Or reload the configuration file . There are two answers here .


1) use service command


View service status

service [servicename] status


start-up / stop it / Restart service  

service [servicename] [start|stop|restart]


Reload service profile ( Do not restart service )

service [servicename] [reload]


For example, I want to check it sshd Is the service on


2) use systemctl command

Relatively new systems have been adopted systemd,systemctl yes systemd A tool for , Mainly responsible for control systemd System and service manager .

View service status

systemctl status [servicename]


start-up / stop it / Restart service  

systemctl [start|stop|restart] [servicename]


Reload service profile ( Do not restart service )

systemctl [reload] [servicename]



5, How to view the size of a directory


have access to du -sh [ catalog ] command ,du Use to calculate files / Directory size command ,-s Displays the size of the file or the entire directory ,-h Is in readable format .

For example, I checked my home directory above tmp Size of directory , There are 80 K


6, How to view the open port number in your system


1) use netstat command

netstat Command to display network status , Include network connections , Routing table , Interface statistics and other information . Common parameters are as follows :

-a (all) Show all options , Do not display by default LISTEN relevant .

-t (tcp) Show only tcp Related options .

-u (udp) Show only udp Related options .

-n Reject alias , All the numbers that can be displayed are converted into numbers .

-l List only those Listen ( monitor ) Service status of .

-p Display the name of the program that established the relevant link

-r Show routing information , Routing table

-e Show extended information , for example uid etc.

-s Statistics by protocol

-c Every other fixed time , Execute this netstat command .


Now I use it netstat -tulpn command , Port visible 22 Being monitored .


2) use ss command

Now there are many people using it ss command ,ss Commonly used to dump socket statistics . It can also display socket statistics of all types , include
PACKET,TCP,UDP,DCCP,RAW,Unix Domain etc . It can be used here ss -lntpd


7, How to view a process pair CPU Usage of


1) have access to top command

top The order is Linux Common performance analysis tools , It can display the resource usage of each process in the system in real time , be similar to Windows Task manager for .


2) use ps command

ps aux Show all users' processes , The most common method is ps aux, Then a pipe symbol is used to guide the grep To find a specific process . For example, check nginx Process can use  

ps aux | grep nginx



8,Linux How to mount in


The main test here is mount command , For mounting Linux Files outside the system .

Input only mount Command to view all files that have been mounted on the system .

If you want to mount a new file , For example /dev/hda1 Hang on /mnt under , It can be used  

mount /dev/hda1 /mnt


 9, How to view some commands you are not familiar with


What we need to test here is the use of man command . To a certain Linux 's command is not familiar , It can be used man < command >, The system will return a very detailed manual of the command , To help you use .



10, If used man I still can't find the answer


Baidu , Or in the Forum , Help God in the community ......



of course , It is not enough to grasp the above ten basic problems . We should pay attention to accumulation in our daily work and study ; Put your experience before the interview , Important knowledge points should be sorted out and fully prepared ; Adjust your mindset in the interview. , Answer questions calmly , Logic needs to be clear , Express clearly . Finally, I wish you all the best in your career .




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